During the eighteenth century a number of new institutions emerged and flourished in England—men’s clubs, spas, Masonic lodges, and beach resorts. What were the reasons for this far-reaching change in cultural activity? Why did individuals rush to the shore, transforming fishing villages into the new spas? What was the significance for English life in general?
Until recently Roy Ritchie has been the Director of Research at the Huntington Library. An authority on early American history, he received his B. A. from Occidental College and his Ph. D. from the University of California, Los Angeles. His books include the famous work, Captain Kidd and the War against the Pirates (1989).
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